Tuesday, June 12, 2018

The Need for the Human Factor in an AI World - Tip #191

How do you imagine a future with AI? Will the world be run by machines and computers? Or are humans still an important part of the picture?

An AI Named Quixote

Quixote is an AI system that learns about ethics and human values by listening to simple stories. According to Mark O. Riedl and Brent Harrison, creators of Quixote and researchers at the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Institute of Technology, the AI system reverse engineers’ human values through stories; narratives tell Quixote how humans interact with each other and informs the system what the accepted behaviors are in a society. So, it knows for instance, that stealing is wrong.

The innovation may “wow” you, but behind the scene is a person deciding which stories to feed the AI system. H. James Wilson, Paul R. Daugherty, and Nicola Morini-Bianzino believe this and the role of monitoring and making sure Quixote runs properly will be the critical responsibility of a human ethics compliance manager

So yes, humans will still be important in a world dependent on AI. In training and development, in particular, human trainers will play an important part in shaping employees to take on novel jobs.

The Role of Human Trainers in an AI World

In the world of AI, jobs will be vastly different than what we know today. An Accenture study and Wilson, et al. note that these future jobs will be “new,” “unique,” and “novel, requiring skills and training that have no precedents.”

These new novel jobs fall under three categories, according to Wilson et al.:

  • Trainers (e.g., empathy trainer) will be responsible for teaching AI systems on how they should perform. For instance, a trainer makes sure chatbots can detect when a customer uses sarcasm in their communication and respond accordingly.
  • Explainers (e.g., algorithm forensic analysts) are those who can explain to business leaders, how complex algorithms work. They will essentially become the “bridges” for non-technical professionals to understand how AI works.
  • Sustainers (e.g., ethics compliance manager) will ensure that AI systems work as they were meant to work and that any diversion from that function and the consequences arising therefrom will be immediately addressed.
In short, human workers will make sure that AI tasks are “fair, transparent, and auditable.”

Over to you: How else do you see the roles and responsibilities of training and development professionals change in an AI world? Share your thoughts with me in the comments section below.


What is the Quixote AI System? (Long version). YouTube/Entertainment Intelligence. March 1, 2016
Brent Harrison and Mark O. Riedl. Towards Learning From Stories: An Approach to Interactive Machine Learning. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2015
H. James Wilson, Paul R. Daugherty, and Nicola Morini-Bianzino. The Jobs That Artificial Intelligence Will Create. MIT Sloan Management Review Magazine: Summer 2017 Issue
Adi Gaskell. Do We Need To Set Aside Time For Learning At Work? Forbes, July 20, 2017

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Thursday, June 7, 2018

Small Rewards Encourage Independent Lifelong Learning - Tip #190

“How do you engage online learners?”

It’s a perennial question that bugs learning and development professionals of all skills and responsibilities. From the designer to the trainer, it’s the one question that so many of us has sought to answer. Why, this blog is filled with tips on how to do just that!

But, here’s one more tip that you may not have considered.

Use Small Rewards to Engage Online Learners

In a study by Christian Garaus, Gerhard Furtmuller, and Wolfgang H. Guttel published in the Academy of Management Learning and Education, they found that “small rewards enhance autonomous motivation.”

Because small rewards (e.g., small points for performing an action) are large enough to affect the desired behavior (e.g., engage in online learning) but too small to justify continuing it, learners feel a “sense of dissonance (why am I doing this?)” and they link their persistence to learn to an intrinsic motivator(e.i., an internal desire, such as interest or enjoyment), which makes sense because autonomous learners are driven more by intrinsic reasons, such as a drive to meet personal and professional goals.

A small reward is an extrinsic motivator, or an external factor that pushes learners to do something to earn a reward or avoid an undesirable outcome. It only serves to push learners to start engaging in online learning and they don’t perceive it as a motivator to keep on going. Extrinsic drivers are a great source of motivation not because of external rewards but because they are associated with the goals a worker must do.

For example, Mary wants to feel good about doing great work and making clients happy. That’s a very intrinsic motivation. She is also responding to feedback of her actual work. So when the client says, “Can you do this?,” her inclination is to assist. That work demand is an extrinsic driver.

Other Ways to Apply Small Rewards in Training and Development

The research also suggests that small rewards can be used as a feedback mechanism for online learning. The rewards confirm a learner’s “current level of mastery” or performance and could motivate them further to learn independently.

Remember the IKEA Effect? When DIYers finish a project, they feel proud and accomplished, which further nurtures their passion for DIY. This is the same cycle: Small rewards motivate workers to start learning, they learn (“I did it!”), and they receive the small reward.

In addition to online learning, small rewards may also help employees take that first step towards accepting changes in the organization. But, because they can’t really attribute their behavior change to the small reward, they assume they’re embracing the change out of more internal reasons.


Christian Garaus, Gerhard Furtmuller, and Wolfgang H. Guttel. The Hidden Power of Small Rewards: The Effects of Insufficient External Rewards on Autonomous Motivation to Learn. Academy of Management Learning & EducationVol. 15, No. 1
Gerhard Furtmüller, Christian Garaus, and Wolfgang H. Güttel. Even Tiny Rewards Can Motivate People to Go the Extra Mile. Harvard Business Review, June 7, 2016
Sophia Bernazzani. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: What's the Difference?. HubSpot, originally published October 10, 2017, updated October 11, 2017
Tip #49 - Instilling a Love of Learning

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Monday, June 4, 2018

Adopt Independent Lifelong Learning to Meet Workplace Challenges - Tip #189

I recently came across two interesting statistics on learning and development. The first one basically says organizations are placing less emphasis on on-the-job training and the other one states that individuals are focusing on independent and continuous learning. Here are the details.

The Stats

In a report by America’s Council of Economic Advisers, workers in the country are steadily receiving fewer paid-for or on-the-job training between 1996 and 2008. And, it’s the same situation across the pond: British workers also received less training around the same year range.

On the other hand, a Pew survey found that 54% of all working Americans believe they need to develop new skills throughout their lives. This number goes up to 61% among adults under 30 years old. It seems like the prospect of having a 40-year career is “no longer realistic” for them.

Learning - whether through online courses, webinars, or real-life situations - has become an “ongoing, lifelong pursuit.” The younger generation of workers, aka millennials, believe in this statement so much that they’re willing to spend their own hard-earned cash to pursue independent and continuous learning.

Today’s Challenges Require Lifelong Reskilling

Several challenges brought about this attitude toward independent and continuous learning. These cause workers to worry about their jobs and careers, both in the short-term and in the long-term.
  • Technology creates a lot of career anxiety. New tech are always being introduced, which either make tasks easier or remove the need for human workers altogether. According to a Pew study, 72% of Americans worry about losing their jobs because of technology.
  • Hybrid jobs.” The skills that compose new jobs have seen a rapid evolution, requiring a new combination of skills, such as programming skills (coding) with marketing, design, or data analysis skills.
  • New job titles are emerging. Job titles are also undergoing rapid changes, especially reflecting the new skills necessary to thrive in today’s workplace. According to LinkedIn, the top 10 job titles today, including iOS developer, digital marketing specialist, and social media analyst, were nonexistent less than a decade ago. Who knows what job titles might arise in the future?
  • Skills obsolescence. The influx of new tech and new requirements of hybrid jobs has caused some skills to become obsolete. Work-related knowledge are now only expected to have a shelf life of less than 5 years. Plus, employers today expect workers to be fluent in digital tools and comfortable with virtual environments.
  • Dynamic and nonlinear careers. This short-term nature of skills today could mean that workers might have multiple careers in a lifetime. “Our parents had one job, I will have seven jobs, and our children will do seven jobs at one time,” says Robin Chase, former CEO and founder of ZipCar.
These new challenges must be met head on. Stay tuned for the next blog post for tips on how to pursue lifelong independent and continuous learning.

What other challenges do you think push learners toward lifelong reskilling? Share your thoughts with me in the comments below.


The Economist. Lifelong learning is becoming an economic imperative. January 12, 2017
Pew Research Center. More worry than optimism about potential developments in automation. October 3, 2017
Burning Glass Technologies and General Assembly. Hybrid Jobs - Blurring Lines: How Business and Technology Skills Are Merging to Create High Opportunity Hybrid Jobs
Sohan Murthy. Top 10 Job Titles That Didn’t Exist 5 Years Ago [INFOGRAPHIC]. January 6, 2014
John Hagel, John Seely Brown, Maggie Wooll, Roy Mathew, and Wendy Tsu. The lifetime learner A journey through the future of postsecondary education. Deloitte Insights, October 27, 2014

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Thursday, May 31, 2018

4 Ways to Develop Learning Agility - Tip #188

In a previous blog post, I talked about how a VUCA environment can actually jumpstart the learning process. But, for learning to take place, learners have to be flexible and open to change.

A term we used to describe learners that thrive - and succeed - in a VUCA setting is “learning agile.”

Developing Learning Agility

Dr. David Smith, PhD, organizational psychologist, believes learning agility can be taught because it’s not a trait that’s innate in a person - which is good news. This means we can help learners develop learning agility.

To do that, we must instill in learners these three prerequisites to learning agility: 
  • Potential to learn. Learners must be open to learning and receptive to what we have to teach them.
  • Motivation to learn. They must be willing to participate in the learning process.
  • Adaptability to learn. They must be able to take what they learn and apply it to constantly changing conditions.

Teaching Learning Agility

Before the actual teaching/learning process can begin, Dr. Smith states that forward-thinking organizations start with an assessment. Take stock of what level of learning exists within your organization and if the organization’s environment supports this learning.

If you want to go deeper—at the individual learner level—he recommends Dr. Warner Burke’s Learning Agility Inventory™ (Burke LAI). This is a questionnaire with 38 questions and can be used to measure learning agility in individuals.

Back to the question of how we can help learners develop learning agility. Here are my thoughts.

Peer Learning
Experience sharing can be a gold mine of gaining learning “from experience” without actually having experienced it yourself. Creating “peer groups” similar to what Tony Guzzi, CEO of EMCOR describes here is a great way to collate the experiences of members of the organization, connecting the dots, and moving forward with the group’s shared learning.

To thrive and even get ahead in a VUCA environment, you have to stop asking “what is” and start asking “what if.” Mulling over the what-ifs will help you think of possibilities and think outside the box.

Responsive Culture
VUCA challenges organizations to adapt, to shape up or ship out. So a responsive culture based on the values of trust and empowerment are essential.

Pratt & Whitney, an American aerospace manufacturer, has “performance connections,” where supervisors sit down with their direct reports thrice a year to talk about how they’re changing the organization’s culture.

Learning Organization
Because VUCA requires learners to be constantly learning, they need to have access to new information and supported by an environment that encourages them to learn through experimentation and even from failure.

Forward-thinking organizations employ after-action reviews to determine “what worked, what went wrong, and what needs to be improved.”


Michael Woodward, Ph.D. How to Thrive in a VUCA World: The Psychology of Navigating Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, & Ambiguous Times. Psychology Today, July 31, 2017
Axarloglou Kostas. Learning Agility: A New Learning Paradigm? ALBA Graduate Business School at The American College of Greece, June 28, 2017
Burke’s Learning Agility Inventory™ (Burke LAI)
Brigadier General George Forsythe, Karen Kuhla and Daniel Rice. Five Fortune 500 CEOs on Strategy During Uncertain Times. ChiefExecutive.net, May 16, 2018
Brigadier General George Forsythe, Karen Kuhla and Daniel Rice. Understanding the Challenges of a VUCA Environment. ChiefExecutive.net, May 16, 2018
Tip #57 - Episodic Learning-Learning Like Watching Your Favorite Soap Opera!
Tip #181 - The Conversation Loop: Foster Learning Through Experience Sharing
Tip #187 - VUCA part 1 title- How VUCA Expands Learning Horizons

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

How VUCA Expands Learning Horizons - Tip #187

Can you imagine how a young fruit vendor in Tunisia, hopeless about his situation, could lead to Brexit six years later? Neither did anyone else.

Such is the world we are living in. Unpredictable things happening and rapid changes taking place have become the norm.

Harnessing VUCA for Better Learning

VUCA stands for volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. It was originally used by the U.S. Army War College students to describe the world after the Cold War. It has now come to describe the environment under which organizations operate today.

But, rather than focus on the negative side of VUCA, think of this instead. We can use the current VUCA conditions to help learners learn better and reap the benefits. According to The Conference Board and Development Dimensions International’s Global Leadership Forecast 2014 | 2015, organizations with leaders that operate effectively in a VUCA environment are three times more likely to be in the top 20% of financial performance, compared to an organization that lacks effective leadership in a VUCA setting.

For workers, in particular, VUCA could spell the end of a job or career—or jumpstart a new role.

VUCA Requires Learning Agility

Dr. David Smith, PhD, organizational psychologist and CEO and President of EASI Consult LLC, shared in a Psychology Today interview that only the “learning agile” will succeed in a VUCA environment.

The learning agile are characterized by nine behavior patterns or dimensions, according to Dr. Warner Burke and colleagues at Columbia University.

  • The learning agile are willing to try new things. (Flexibility)
  • They quickly understand new ideas. (Speed)
  • They test out these new ideas. (Experimenting)
  • They take on challenges. (Performance risk taking)
  • They ask for help. (Interpersonal risk taking)
  • They leverage other people’s skills. (Collaborating)
  • They increase their knowledge. (Information gathering)
  • They ask for feedback. (Feedback seeking)
  • They reflect on their effectiveness. (Reflecting)

In short, learners who are flexible, open to change, and thrive on new experiences will succeed in a VUCA environment. Fortunately, these are not personality traits that are hard to develop but a “combination of baseline cognitive skills” and “motivation to think outside the box, try new things and learn from them.”

Next on the blog will be more tips on how to be learning agile. For now, let me know your thoughts. In what ways can VUCA stimulate learning?


Sunnie Giles. How VUCA Is Reshaping The Business Environment, And What It Means For Innovation. Forbes, May 9, 2018
The Conference Board and Development Dimensions International. Ready-Now Leaders: 25 Findings to Meet Tomorrow’s Business Challenges—Global Leadership Forecast 2014 | 2015
Rawn Shah. Corporate Learning In A Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, Ambiguous World. Forbes, Sept. 22, 2015
Michael Woodward, Ph.D. How to Thrive in a VUCA World: The Psychology of Navigating Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, & Ambiguous Times. Psychology Today, July 31, 2017
Tip #68 - Why Reflect? The Role of Reflection in the Learning Process
Tip #75 - Insight Sharing - How They "Meet and Mate"

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Thursday, May 24, 2018

We Need More Learning Engineers - Tip #186

In a South by Southwest ed-tech conference, Bror Saxberg, chief learning officer at Kaplan Inc., noticed something important: There was no discussion about how no one is taking evidence from learning science and applying them in the creation of learning materials or educational experiences.

He shared:

Saxberg, who is also a member of the advisory board of the IEEE IC Industry Consortium on Learning Engineering (ICICLE), defines a learning engineer as “someone who draws from evidence-based information about human development—including learning—and seeks to apply these results at scale, within contexts, to create affordable, reliable, data-rich learning environments.”

Role of Learning Engineers in Training and Development

Learning engineers play an important role in developing an online learning environment. Their aim is to create and improve the learning experience, which they then evaluate for effectiveness and so the cycle begins again.

We need learning engineers to:

  • Test our assumptions against facts.
  • Encourage questions, proofs, and evidence on whether our current training practices, methodologies, and tools are working or not.
  • Run controlled trials (experiment) to see how one learning approach compares to another.
  • Measure what learners learn.

Encouraging More L&D Professionals to Become Learning Engineers

“In ten years, learning engineering will be a core job in educational technology companies, K-12 schools, colleges and universities,” says Carnegie Mellon University professor of human–computer interaction, Ken Koedinger.

But, we can take some steps to foster the growth of more learning engineers now. Here are my thoughts:

Increase Collaboration

Carnegie Mellon’s Bill Jerome shared that the “best way to build effective learning environments is to regularly convene faculty, software engineers, usability specialists, learning scientists, and others.” Training and learning, then, becomes a “community-based research activity” rather than a “solo sport.”

Related tip: The “Secret Sauce” of Virtual Collaboration - Tip #173

Harness Technology

Technology will play a big role in helping learning engineers become effective at their jobs. It will help them both gather data and apply their learnings to improve existing learning environments.

It’s your turn. How can we “cultivate” more learning engineers in our field? Share your thoughts below.


Bror Saxberg. Why We Need Learning Engineers. The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 20, 2015
Shelly Blake-Plock. Learning Engineering: Merging Science and Data to Design Powerful Learning Experiences. Getting Smart, January 29, 2018
Bill Jerome. The Need for Learning Engineers (and Learning Engineering). e-Literate, April 14, 2013

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Monday, May 21, 2018

4 Ways Beacons Can Change Microlearning for the Better - Tip #185

When employees come to work, there is only one key role they have to play - whether they know it or not - and that is to fix, solve and improve work issues. And, because they want rapid and almost instantaneous answers and solutions, microlearning not only has to be low effort, fast and easy but also rich in context and ready to use or immediately applicable.

One technology that has a lot of promise at accelerating these goals and principles is Beacon-Based Learning Solutions.

Here’s How It Works:

Image 1. Beacon-Based Learning Solutions - Overview Flow
Click here for the enlarged view.

Impacts on Microlearning

Clark Quinn believes technology can work with us. He calls this concept Intelligence Augmentation. There are plenty of ways we can implement beacons and, if we do so successfully, the technology could revolutionize contextual computing and make learning more natural for employees.

In Microlearning, here are the ways beacons will make an impact:

1. Deliver just-in-time location/context-specific information.
Beacons can reduce the time learners spend on searching for answers, especially those related to a specific workstation. For instance, when a brand new office equipment comes in, a beacon near it can pull up product information or user manuals. It can also alert workers about urgent issues in relation to equipment, parts or processes. This is similar to the Learning Zones put up in one school or this United Nations Mine Action Service exhibit.

2. Customize the learning experience.
We can use Beacon’s ability to track learning to learn more about the workers' and learners' progress in using the answers and solutions to solve issues at work. This helps get a quick snapshot of what they are using, applying and needing more answers and solutions.

3. Provide big-picture data.
Beacons can have significant implications for trainers, HR and managers. For instance, they can now see trends and patterns from collected data, like how much time per day a worker spends on learning, which courses are most popular and what problems need urgent solutions.

4. Possibility of lowering content development costs.
Instead of installing an app, learners could be issued inexpensive plastic beacons that would trigger low-cost smart devices at limited learning stations. This would also ease the learners’ worry of receiving too many push notifications on their phones.

Is This the Future of Microlearning?

What do you think of beacon technology as it applies to microlearning? Tell me your thoughts in the comments below.


Tip #124 - Are Instructional Designers Incapable of Microlearning Design?
Clark Quinn. Intelligence Augmentation and Learning and Development. Litmos, July 18, 2017
Paul Hamilton. iBeacon Technology in Education Demonstration. February 19, 2014
IPG Media Lab. UN Exhibit Uses BLE to Demonstrate The Danger of Landmines. April 4, 2014
Clark Quinn. Bringing About Better E-Learning. Association for Talent Development, February 16, 2017
Pamela Hogle. Beacons: A Shiny New Tool for Delivering Context-Specific Content. Learning Solutions Magazine, December 29, 2016

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Thursday, May 17, 2018

Deliver Powerful Training with Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT) - Tip #184

There is no denying the power of instructor-led training (ILT). But, there are interesting findings from multiple studies showing that a range of companies such as the National EMS Academy and Deloitte, have transitioned or are now shifting from face-to-face ILT to virtual ILT (VILT) or implementing VILT through a hybrid training model.

According to the Association for Talent Development (ATD), less than half (49%) of all training in 2015 was through face-to-face live ILT. Compare that with traditional ILT accounting for 59% of all training in 2010.

A separate study found that 31% of learners “attend training in a virtual classroom setting” and “37% of companies’ training portfolios are being offered in virtual and hybrid delivery modalities.”

Why the Shift from Traditional ILT to Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT)?

Traditional ILT has two major disadvantages. They require much time and cost in comparison with VILT. With new and improved technologies, VILT has become the practical choice especially for organizations with learners in varied geographical locations.

How Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT) Can Benefit Your Organization

Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT) offers many benefits. Here are some of them.
  • VILT’s modular design caters to busy learners. Many VILT programs come in the form of short training content. They don’t take up too much time and can be consumed independently or in combination with other courses.
  • VILT allows “whenever, wherever” training and learning. Without the limitations of a  physical environment or even time constraints, VILT is a convenient way to train and learn. Learners can pick and learn training content whenever and wherever they like.
  • VILT reduces cost. Without the need for travel and lodging, organizations and presenters can both reduce or eliminate these training expenses.
  • VILT increases training scalability. In typical classroom settings, the more students you have, the more expensive in terms of materials and space it gets. In VILT, trainers can train many learners without any of these worries, making VILT a scalable and cost-effective model.
  • VILT encourages diverse learners. Because it isn’t limited in time and space, VILT opens a wider door for learners of varied backgrounds and culture to learn together and collaborate.

Instructor-led training isn’t going away anytime soon. However, the way it’s being delivered has been shifting from face-to-face/in-person to virtual. VILT can be advantageous for companies looking to reduce cost, scale their training model, and/or accommodate diverse learners.


Association for Talent Development (ATD). ATD Releases 2016 State of the Industry Report. December 8, 2016
MicroTek and Training Industry, Inc. The Next Generation Classroom: Virtual/Hybrid Instructor-Led Training. February 17, 2016
Chief Learning Officer. Virtual Instructor-Led Training: The Best of Both Worlds. February 8, 2013

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Why Effective Virtual Conversations Accelerate Learning and Knowledge Application - Tip #183

What can you say about Virtual Training? How is it different from the typical training setup? I’d love to hear your thoughts.

As for me, I think virtual training is all about engaging conversations. Here’s why.

Lecture vs. Interaction

There are two types of virtual training. The first one is what I call the Linear Virtual Training model. It consists of straight presentation that’s heavy on content dump or overload.
This linear method is a one-way process, where the presenter does all the talking; learners are only supposed to listen. This results in low engagement. There’s no conversation or interaction going on.

In contrast, the second type of virtual training—the Interactive Virtual Training approach—makes use of microlearning concepts such as “must-learn” and “learn-on-need.”
Must-learn content addresses areas of high value or impact, while learn-on-need content are resources and references that provide more details and complement the must-learn content. The separation of content into must-learn and learn-on-need avoids content dump as well as boring and irrelevant virtual training presentations.

This method involves less lecture from the presenter and more thinking and application from the learners. This model also provides plenty of interaction between the presenter and the learners. There’s a conversation going on and it’s more engaging. As a result, the Interactive Virtual Training approach helps learners to learn, recall, and apply ideas.

While the Linear Virtual Training model is a logical delivery of ideas, it’s really a "superficial treatment." Whereas the Interactive Virtual Training model requires a "fundamental shift" in goals: from creating aesthetically organized templates and standard lectures to engaging learners and accelerating their learning and application of knowledge.

Why Conversations Matter

In a technologically enabled world, social learning and collaboration have become more easier than ever before.

And, both of these can’t happen without conversations. There’s no social learning without the exchange of ideas, and one of the key factors of successful collaboration in today’s world is “conversation turn taking.” Social learning and collaboration are essential in successfully navigating today’s work environment characterized by rapid change and demand for quick information and problem-solving.

Virtual Training Conversation Ideas

Here are some ideas on how to start or foster conversations in your own virtual training sessions.

Tip #40 - Your Brain Prefers Interactive Stories: Not Lectures
Tip #48 - Stop That Dump Truck! Ask Questions to Know What is Important for Learners
Tip #54 - Social Learning Ought to be Story-Sharing: "Friends You Haven't Met Yet"
Tip #137 - How to Be a Kung Fu Webinar and Virtual Trainer Master
Tip #138 - What I learned from the WEBINAR Gurus --Thiagi, Lou Russell, Jane Bozarth
Tip #173 - The “Secret Sauce” of Virtual Collaboration
Tip #181 - The Conversation Loop: Foster Learning Through Experience Sharing
Tip #182 - Curious Language Sparks Learning Engagement

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"